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What Is a Virtual Private Network (VPN) And What Does It Do?

Scenarios Where a VPN Could Help

A laptop and mobile device user visits their favorite coffee shop, connecting to the free WiFi hotspot to access the internet. They use the unprotected hotspot to pay bills, do their banking, and shop on Amazon. Meanwhile, a quiet young individual sits in the corner, sipping their latte, and monitoring their internet connection, stealing valuable personal and business information.

A business traveler visits a foreign country and finds they no longer have access to their company’s servers, as well as a number of other websites and online services they require to properly perform their job-related tasks online. Even worse, they also cannot access the latest episode of “Better Call Saul” on Netflix.

A citizen of a country ruled by a totalitarian government longs to be able to visit websites that are blocked out of hand by the government due to the websites’ allegedly radical information, which the government feels may do damage to the rulers’ approved ways of thinking.

How Can a VPN Help?

All three examples above are textbook cases of problems that a Virtual Private Network (VPN) could be used to solve, protecting users’ personal and business data, as well as opening up access to web-based content and services that might not normally be available due to governmental or geographically-based restrictions.

By using a VPN, internet users can protect their valuable personal and business-related data from prying eyes. In addition to enhanced security, a VPN connection can also open up a world of information that might not normally be available.

In this article, I’ll explain to you what a VPN is, what it does, and why you should be using one to protect the internet connection on your computers and mobile devices.

What is a VPN?

A Virtual Private Network offers a secure, protected network connection between a computer or mobile device and another network via the internet.

A VPN accomplishes this by forwarding all of the connected device’s data traffic through a private network, allowing the user to access local network resources, no matter where the user’s location is.

IP passes through VPN

Using a VPN also hides a computer’s true IP address by assigning it a “spoofed” IP address from another region of the globe. This allows users to access web content and services that might not normally be available in their real location. What’s more, a VPN encrypts all data transmitted via the connection, adding an additional layer of protection for users.

A VPN is created by establishing a point-to-point connection through the internet – a private tunnel of sorts. The tunneled connection offers users the same benefits as if they were connecting to the target network from within that network, looking and acting, for all purposes, like a local connection.

What Can a VPN Be Used For?

Sure, a VPN sounds like a fine thing, but why would you ever need one?

In today’s world, I feel that a VPN is a must-have for the toolkit of any internet user. Whether you do business on the web, check your banking accounts via the internet, or only peruse Facebook, someone could be monitoring your internet connection.

A VPN allows users to freely use the internet as it was intended, accessing any and all available content and services, with no restriction by your Internet Service Provider (ISP) or government. It also prevents said ISP or government from selling your personal usage stats or keeping a record of the usage to use against you in court.

A VPN allows users to:

1. Access a Private Business Network While on the Road

VPNs were originally used mostly by business people who traveled or otherwise worked remotely. This allowed them to connect to their company’s network and its resources while out of the office, without exposing the network directly to the internet.

A VPN’s encrypted tunnel provides a connection to an organization’s internal network, without exposing the network to the rest of the internet. This prevents bad actors or even the curious among us from accessing the internal network.

VPN accesses internal business network

2. Hide Internet-Browsing Activity from Prying Eyes

A bill passed by Congress and signed into law by former President Trump revokes Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulations preventing ISPs from monitoring their users’ internet traffic and sharing that usage information with advertisers.

Since the current Biden administration has made no moves to revoke this law, ISPs are still allowed to gather such information without the consent of their customers.

A well-crafted VPN is particularly good at hiding browsing and other internet activity from the prying eyes of hackers, ISPs (as mentioned above), the government, and other bad guys. A VPN cloaks your internet activity, making it look like a single connection to one address. This makes a VPN an excellent tool for hiding your activity from your ISP.

VPN hides browsing activity

A VPN encrypts your connection. So, while blocking your ISP from following you around on the internet, it also adds an additional layer of protection from nosy neighbors. Even if an outsider could tap into your VPN connection, they would be faced with a secure level of encryption, making it much more difficult for them to monitor and steal the data being sent and received via the connection.

A VPN’s encrypted connection protection is a particularly vital tool for anyone who makes regular use of public WiFi hotspots. This keeps your online activities out of sight. Otherwise, you might as well go from table to table and hand out your credit card and bank account numbers, and email communications one by one.

3. Access Geo-Restricted Content and Bypass Censorship

By allowing users to appear as if their internet connection originated from another region, a VPN enables users to access content that might be either restricted geographically or censored by a restrictive government.

Users can make use of a VPN to access geo-restricted content – such as Netflix, Hulu, Pandora, and other streaming services – that, due to contracts with content owners, only offer certain content within certain countries.

How VPN bypasses Censorship

VPNs also allow internet users in countries ruled by oppressive regimes to access websites and other content that wouldn’t normally be available to them due to government censorship.

This includes countries such as China and its “Great Firewall of China,” which blocks access to websites and services like Facebook and other social networks.

4. Download Files from P2P/Torrent Sites

Everyone pretends they don’t do this, but torrenting is one of the top reasons for using a VPN connection. A VPN connection keeps your file-sharing connections completely private. What your ISP can’t see, they can’t report.

VPN hides P2P and BITTORRENT Activity

While Pixel Privacy definitely does not encourage sharing copyrighted files, like games, videos, and music, VPNs can also be useful for perfectly legal file-sharing. Many organizations use torrenting to share files. Unfortunately, some ISPs throttle or block any type of P2P traffic on their networks. Luckily, if your ISP can’t see what you’re doing, they can’t block you or throttle your connection for participating in file-sharing.

What Type of Security Does a VPN Offer?

A Virtual Private Network offers data connection protection via any of a number of secure tunneling protocols. The protocols encrypt the network traffic so that, even if the traffic is sniffed out at the network level, all anyone who analyzed the network packets would see was encrypted data.

VPNs can offer the following types of security (listed in order of quality of protection):

1. OpenVPN and Other Protocols

OpenVPN, while not as fast as other protocols, offers improved security. The protocol is the default for many currently-available VPN services and their associated apps. OpenVPN is definitely the protocol to use if it is available for your setup.

OpenVPN makes use of open-source technologies, including the OpenSSL encryption library and the SSL v3/TLS v1 protocols. OpenVPN can be configured to run over any port, which allows OpenVPN traffic to appear as standard HTTPS traffic. This makes it impossible for ISPs and governments to easily block the connection.

Lately, many VPNs are offering protocols based on the WireGuard protocol. WireGuard is designed for better performance, while still providing reliable security. NordVPN’s NordLynx protocol is one such offshoot.

Also, some VPN providers are creating their own protocols, such as ExpressVPN, who offers its proprietary Lightway protocol. The provider says the protocol is optimized for security, reliability, and performance.

2. Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol (SSTP)

SSTP makes use of the HTTPS protocol over TCP port 443. This allows traffic to pass through firewalls and web proxies that might block PPTP and L2TP/IPsec traffic. It is a proprietary Microsoft protocol.

SSTP is integrated into the Windows operating system as of Windows Vista Service Pack 1 and later. This offers stability for Windows users, as it is built into the platform. The protocol offers abilities similar to OpenVPN, but it’s mostly just for use on Windows.

3. Layer Two Tunneling Protocol/IPSec (L2TP/IPSec)

L2TP is a VPN protocol that offers no encryption of its own. Therefore, it is usually paired with IPSec encryption. L2TP/IPSec offers encryption for multiprotocol traffic that can be sent via point-to-point delivery.

As it uses UDP port 500, it is impossible to disguise – making it easier to block.

4. Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP)

PPTP allows internet traffic to be encrypted and then encapsulated in an IP header to be sent across a public IP network such as the internet. PPTP works well with remote access and site-to-site VPN connection applications.

PPTP should be avoided if at all possible. While it is a popular protocol and has been around since the Windows 95 days, it is that early time of development and lack of strong encryption that makes it a lesser choice among modern protocols.

TL;DR version: If OpenVPN is available, always use it. Or, give WireGuard or one of its offshoots a try. If you’re on the Windows platform, and OpenVPN isn’t available through your VPN provider, use SSTP. As for the other two protocols, always use L2TP/IPSec over PPTP, which should be avoided if at all possible.

VPN Security

What to Look for in a VPN Provider

It seems as if a new VPN provider appears on the scene almost daily. There are a number of fine VPN providers out there, just as there are also a number of fly-by-night operators.

When searching for a VPN provider, you need to keep a number of important requirements in mind. You’ll want to keep in mind that a VPN provider should offer a good balance between ease of use and security. If possible, give up a bit of the ease of use in favor of better security.

1. Server Locations and Availability

VPN servers

A VPN provider should, preferably, offer a large number of connection options, with a larger number of server connections, available in as many countries as possible.

The higher the number of connection locations, the better the chance you’ll find a service that will offer good protection, as well as good performance – providing a high-speed connection for a more satisfactory internet experience.

2. Simultaneous Connections

Electronic devices graphic

Another consideration when deciding on a VPN provider is the number of simultaneous connections the provider allows you to make.

While it’s possible you might only be using the VPN on your laptop or mobile device, extra connections would allow business associates or family members to connect at the same time.

3. Look for OpenVPN

Open VPN logo

Always look for a provider that offers OpenVPN as an encryption option. OpenVPN offers a good mix of speed and protection.

Keep in mind that OpenVPN is usually only available on desktop versions of VPN applications. For mobile devices, most providers still only offer L2TP/IPsec.

4. No Bandwidth Throttling

Make sure the VPN provider you’re considering doesn’t throttle your bandwidth. In today’s world of streaming video and audio, teleconferencing, and other bandwidth-hungry applications, unlimited bandwidth is more important than ever.

Also, make sure the provider allows P2P and torrenting. You never know when you might need that.

5. No Logs!

No Logs graphic

While most VPNs don’t keep activity logs of any kind, there are still some that do. There is no reason for a VPN that is truly privacy-minded to keep logs of your online activity. A reputable VPN provider should have no interest in keeping track of your internet usage.

This is why I always recommend against using a free VPN provider. Many free VPN providers make money by tracking their users’ online activities, saving that information, and then selling it to interested third parties, such as advertisers. Other freebie VPNs will insert unwanted tracking cookies and advertisements into their users’ browsing sessions.

A lack of usage logs also means if the government or a content provider comes knocking on the VPN provider’s door, they won’t be able to furnish any logs that could be used against you – for the simple fact that there aren’t any logs to hand over!

6. A Kill Switch

NordVPN Kill Switch

If your main reason for making use of a VPN is anonymity, you’ll also want to make sure that any provider you consider offers a “kill switch”.

A kill switch automatically shuts down a connection if the VPN connection fails. This keeps your computer from defaulting to an unprotected open internet connection, possibly leaving your connection open to prying eyes.

7. Anonymous Payment Methods

If you’re simply looking to use a VPN to protect yourself from hackers on unprotected WiFi hotspots, or you want to ensure that you’ll be able to access online content or web services while traveling internationally, almost any type of payment option will likely be acceptable.

All VPN providers that I have tried offer credit/debit card, PayPal, and other popular payment methods.

However, if you’re looking to keep your internet usage as anonymous as possible, paying by credit card or PayPal just won’t do it for you, as both leave a payment trail to follow for anyone looking to figure out who you are.

Luckily, a growing number of VPN providers offer payment via cryptocurrency, such as Bitcoin. By using Bitcoin, alongside a disposable email address, there will be no way for anyone to make a connection between you and your VPN provider subscription.

Method of payment graphic

Another anonymous payment option that is available from a limited number of VPN providers is the retailer gift card option. This option allows you to make use of an unused balance on a retailer gift card from such major stores as Walmart or Target (or even Starbucks) to pay for VPN subscriptions. It’s a great option for privacy-minded individuals who lack a cryptocurrency account.

Still Can’t Decide?

If you’re still having issues deciding on which VPN provider to use, make sure to check out my complete reviews of the top 10 VPN providers, which are available on this website.

If you’re pressed for time, let me make it easy for you.



Apps Available:

  • PC
  • Mac
  • IOS
  • Android
  • Linux

Website:  www.NordVPN.com

Money-back guarantee: 30 DAYS

NordVPN (full review here) offers an efficient, secure VPN service.

The provider features apps for most major desktop and mobile computing platforms, including Windows, macOS (with native M1/M2 Mac support), iOS, Android, Amazon Fire, Linux, and Android TV device platforms. Browser extensions are also available for Chrome, Edge, and Firefox platforms.

Up to six simultaneous connections can be made on a single set of login credentials. If that’s not enough, take advantage of NordVPN’s comprehensive router compatibility.

I found the connections that NordVPN offers to be speedy and reliable. Depending on your usual connection speeds, the provider can easily handle video streaming, online gaming, file sharing, and much more.

The provider’s customer support is top-notch thanks to 24/7 live chat, email support, trouble ticket tracking, and a searchable support library.

Download NordVPN for Mac

The VPN service keeps its users’ online activities undercover, thanks to its use of banking-grade encryption, kill switch protection, and IP/DNS leak protection. In addition, it provides threat protection, helping to avoid online hazards like malware and infected websites. The provider’s dark web monitoring feature notifies you if your personal information is leaked to the dark web.

NordVPN also keeps no logs of a user’s online activity, making it perfect for those users who are concerned with online anonymity. Even if the provider was asked to turn over usage logs, they couldn’t – because they do not exist.

The provider also runs all of its servers 100% from RAM, writing no data of any kind to a physical hard drive. This ensures that all data on the server is securely wiped whenever it is rebooted, shut down, or unplugged and moved to another location. The provider’s owned-and-operated servers keep outside contractors well away from your personal information.

NordVPN pricing is quite reasonable. The service offers excellent connection quality, a wide variety of server locations around the world, and excellent customer support, making it excellent value for money.

NordVPN provides a variety of payment options, Bitcoin included, so anonymous payment is available for those concerned with such things.

For more information, visit the NordVPN website.

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How Can I Be Sure My VPN Connection Is Secure?

If you are expecting to rely on a VPN service to help protect your online privacy, you’ll want to ensure your VPN provider of choice does a good job keeping your internet connection under wraps.

If a VPN provider doesn’t offer full protection, or if your VPN connection is incorrectly set up, you could be leaking data, making you vulnerable to online eavesdropping and monitoring by hackers, ISPs, governments, and other bad guys.

Luckily, there are many ways for you to confirm that your connection is properly secured. A few visits to a handful of websites can tell you if your VPN provider is offering the protection you’re paying for.

When conducting the following tests, it is advised to use the OpenVPN protocol for your VPN connection if it’s available on your computing platform. OpenVPN offers the best level of protection currently available.

Test #1: The “IP Address Leaks” Test

The first test to run when making sure your VPN connection is working properly is to check your IP address.

Your device’s IP address can disclose your location to anyone who is attempting to track your internet connection. A working VPN connection will mask your actual IP address and will display the IP of the VPN server you are currently connected to.

I suggest making use of websites such as IP Chicken and What Is My IP Address for checking your IP address, masked or otherwise. Both websites can also be handy if you need to find out your current IP address for troubleshooting in the future.

If the IP Address Test shows leaks, make sure to check that your VPN service is actually activated and that you’re connected to the service. Run the test again. If you still show a leak, shut down everything on your computer or device, restart the device, reconnect to the VPN service, and try the test again.

If you still show a leak, contact your VPN provider’s customer support, ask if the issue is with their service and ask them to check their system.

If they refuse, or cannot remedy the issue, close your account and ask for a refund. Try another VPN provider.

Test #2: The “DNS Leaks” Test

Another important thing to check for while testing your VPN connection is DNS leaks.

A DNS leak is an issue with a VPN connection that leads to a loss of online privacy due to it sending DNS queries over unsecured links instead of the VPN connection.

A DNS query is what happens when you type in the name of a website, such as Facebook.com. That name is sent to a DNS server, which translates that hostname into an actual IP address, which is then used to connect to the requested server.

When you are connected to the internet via a VPN connection, it is vital that all of your traffic, including these DNS inquiries, go through the encrypted VPN tunnel, as unprotected DNS inquiries can reveal your online activity if they are “leaked”.

The first screenshot shown below is my usual internet connection, without the benefit of a VPN connection. I use OpenDNS as my DNS server in place of my ISP’s often unreliable DNS servers.

Internet connection without VPN

As you can see, it shows all of my DNS requests are being routed by the OpenDNS servers.

The screenshot below shows what my queries look like when routed through my VPN provider. As you can see, there is no match to my unprotected connection details in the previous screenshot. That’s what we want to see.

Internet connection with VPN

If your tests show DNS leaks, follow the same steps I laid out above for the IP Address Leaks Test.

Test #3: The “P2P Torrent IP Address” Test

Let’s be honest: many of you are going to be using a VPN connection for P2P and torrenting. While a good amount of P2P file sharing is used for peer-to-peer sharing of perfectly legal files, there are those users who occasionally enjoy downloading a file or two that may not normally be available to the public.

These folks, possibly fans of a baseball team in Pittsburgh, will not want their Internet Service Provider, or certain content copyright holders, to notice they are downloading said content via their actual IP addresses.

Let’s say this section is for those people. Not that any of them are reading this article at this particular moment…

Running a P2P Torrent IP Address Test will display the IP address that is being used to download a file from a Torrent source. If you are connected via your VPN app, then the test should show the IP address of your VPN’s server, and not the one your local router has to your ISP.

For this test, I used the Torrent Address Detection function at ipleak.net. You’ll need to scroll down the screen in your browser a bit to find it. Click the “Activate” button you’ll see there and follow the on-screen instructions.

Torrent Address Detection

You can see in the first screenshot below that when running the test without being connected to my VPN, I show my actual IP address. If I was performing an illegal download (which I never would, Disney lawyers), I would run the risk of being discovered by my ISP or the content copyright holder.

IP address without VPN

In the next screenshot, you can see what the P2P Torrent IP Address Test displays when I am torrenting a file via my connection to my VPN provider. As you can see, I am back in St. Louis. Perhaps the Pirates have a road game at Busch Stadium?

IP Address with VPN

If leaks appear for this test, make sure to check the ports being used for the P2P connection. They should match those used by your VPN service. If they don’t, take a look at your VPN connection’s setup and make sure the settings are correct.

If you still experience leaks in testing, contact your VPN provider’s customer support for additional information. If your VPN provider cannot remedy the issue or tells you they do not officially support P2P/torrenting, cancel your account and request a refund. Then find a VPN provider that offers P2P support.

What We’ve Learned

We’ve covered quite a bit in this article. Who knew a (not so) simple thing like a Virtual Private Network would have so much behind it? Let’s take a look at what I’ve shared today.

1. You Might Not Be Paranoid

If you always feel like somebody’s watching you, there’s a good chance they are. As mentioned above, the U.S. government has made it easier than ever for your Internet Service Provider to monitor your online actions and sell the collected information to advertisers for a profit. And let me tell you, neither the Democrats or the Republicans actually care about protecting your privacy, no matter what they say at election time.

2. Never Use WiFi Without Protection

Unprotected WiFi hotspots, such as those found in coffee shops, hotels, and the like are very popular with hackers who monitor your unencrypted internet connection in an effort to steal valuable personal information from you.

3. Not All Websites and Services Are Available in All Countries

If you’re an international traveler, you may find that you can’t access websites or other online services from a foreign country. You may also find the local government restricts access to certain sites and services.

4. Why a VPN is a Valuable Online Tool

A VPN can help you resolve all of the issues above. It helps keep your data safely away from prying eyes via its encrypted connection and can also help you access websites and services not normally available in your area.

5. Select a VPN Provider Carefully

There are a number of VPN providers offering a good service. Carefully examine the VPN providers’ features. It’s also a good idea to read online reviews.

6. Test Your VPN to Ensure You’re Protected

Once you’ve made a decision as to your VPN provider, run some tests to make sure your VPN connection is properly set up, and that it is protecting your connection (and personal information) as advertised.

A VPN is a valuable weapon that everyone should have in their online arsenal. A VPN helps you protect your internet connection from being monitored, keeps your online activities under wraps, and allows you to access online content that might not be available otherwise.

By using a VPN, you’ll find peace of mind knowing your personal data and online activities are not up for sale to the highest bidder, and you will enjoy a richer, more secure internet experience.

What is a VPN FAQs

Is It Legal to Use a VPN?

Yes, it is legal to use a Virtual Private Network in most countries. However, there are countries where you could run into legal issues if you use a VPN. In Belarus, Iraq, Iran, Egypt, Turkmenistan, Turkey, Oman, and North Korea, VPNs are illegal. In China, Russia, The United Arab Emirates, and Uganda, things are a bit murky when it comes to illegality.

Should I Use a Free VPN?

No, I strongly recommend against using a free VPN and there are numerous reasons why. First off, free VPNs do not protect your privacy. Many free VPNs make their money by logging their users’ online activities, then selling that valuable information to advertisers and other nosy types. Plus, many free VPNs place daily or monthly data caps and bandwidth limitations on free users’ usage.

Roundup - best VPNs for speed

Position Our Score Verdict
Verdict: Our top rated VPN
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Verdict: Best budget option
Get Surfshark »
Verdict: Great privacy options
Get ExpressVPN »
Verdict: Highly versatile
Get CyberGhost »
Verdict: Up to 10 devices
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PRIVACY ALERT: Websites you visit can see these details about you:

The following information is available to any site you visit:

Your IP Address:

Your Location:

Your Internet Provider:

This information can be used to target ads and monitor your internet usage.

By using a VPN you can hide these details and protect your privacy.

I recommend NordVPN - the top provider in my testing. It offers outstanding privacy features and there is currently a discounted rate available through this link.

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